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Superstitiousness and Homoeopathy

© Dr. Rajneesh Kumar Sharma MD (Homoeopathy)

Dr. Swati Vishnoi BHMS

Dr. Preetika Lakhera BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Daud BHMS

Dr. Mohammad Tayyab Amir BHMS

For well formatted and illustrated article, please see attached file-

Superstitiousness and Homoeopathy.pdf

Contents

Definition. 1

Etymology. 2

Pathophysiology. 2

Anatomy of superstitiousness 2

Medial temporal lobe. 2

Limbic memory system.. 2

Physiology of superstitiousness 3

Types 3

Superstitious behavior 4

Superstitious belief 4

Signs and symptoms 4

Diagnosis 5

Treatment 5

Homoeopathic treatment of superstitiousness 5

Common remedies for superstitiousness 5

Short repertory of superstitiousness 5

Bibliography. 5

Definition

Superstition is a peculiar type of traditional belief without the basis of reason. It is founded upon fear born of ignorance and mystery. (Psora)

Superstitiousness or superstition is perhaps originally, the state of religious exaltation or the belief in supernatural causality such as forecasts, witchcraft, prophecies or certain aspects linked to religion that contradict natural science and characterized by irrational fear of doing something wrong, connected to obsessive compulsive neurosis, as the two similar thought processes lead a person to the same compulsive action. (Psora)

Etymology

  • Old French- superstitieux
  • Latin- superstitiosus

Pathophysiology

Superstitiousness in OCD is marked by stereotyped repetitive behavioral routines, not necessarily accompanied by superstitious beliefs in false causal attributions. In healthy individuals, superstitious motor behavior can occur without accompanying beliefs in nonexistent causative forces. On the other hand, superstitious beliefs may occur without direct mediation by the motor system. (Psora)

Anatomy of superstitiousness

The following brain areas play their role in development of the two types of superstitiousness-

Medial temporal lobe

The medial temporal lobe pathology is involved in the appearance of superstitious beliefs. Patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy often show a “syndrome of sensory-limbic hyperconnection,” which is characterized by a preoccupation with mystical, religious, and paranormal themes and an exaggerated belief in an extrasensory causation of incidences.

Limbic memory system

It comprises of amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.

Limbic memory system coordinates medial temporal lobe structures, in particular the hippocampus and subordinate brain circuits, controlling inflexible habits and fixed action sequences. One main function of the hippocampus is to develop behavioral changeability. All OCD symptoms arise from the failure of the hippocampal complex to control the subcortical-frontal habit system.

Physiology of superstitiousness

Superstitions are a fundamental feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The type of superstition observed in an individual patient shows the prominently affected neurocognitive systems. The origin of superstitious rituals in OCD primarily involves the habit system of basal ganglia, including its connections with the orbito-frontal cortex. Dysfunction of this neural circuitry is prominent in patients with OCD and OC-spectrum disorders. (Psora)

The recognition of the senselessness of the repetitive motor displays does not enable a patient to break the routine. Whether superstitiously motivated or not, perseveration is an almost defining feature of an obsessive-compulsive ritual. (Psora)

Types

Different brain circuits are responsible for two forms of superstitiousness. The superstitious behavior can be differentiated from superstitious belief, or magical ideation, as there is contrast between them, seen by way of being opposed, or entirely different. (Psora)

Superstitious behavior

Superstitious behavior is the type of the reaction to certain situations or impulses that gets so embedded in individual's course of action that he repeats it continuously. (Psora)

Superstitious belief

Superstitious belief is the unscientific belief that is accepted without question and founded on the operation of supernatural or magical forces i.e. something that is irrational, non-physical and does not follow the rules of science. (Psora)

Superstitious behavior and superstitious belief are rather intellectual ideas about a paranormal causation of chances like telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition etc. These ideas may be universal, within a society and largely resistant to education. They are also called as magical ideation (MI). They are a core element of positive symptoms in schizotypy (continuum of personality characteristics and experiences ranging from normal dissociative, imaginative states to more extreme states related to psychosis and in particular, schizophrenia).  Magical or superstitious beliefs can be regarded as the cognitive equivalents of superstitious behaviors and each type of superstition can occur independently.  (Psora/ Syphilis)

Signs and symptoms

Common symptoms of superstitiousness are those related to anxiety disorders, but symptoms are markedly better by fulfilling the task as per his obsession-

  • Anxiety
  • Excessive worry
  • Obsessive thoughts and exhaustion
  • Phobias
  • Repetitive ritualized behavior
  • Tension
  • Trouble sleeping

Some common examples of superstitiousness are-

  • Black cats crossing the path
  • Do not open the umbrella inside, not even to check if it still works
  • God, bless you for sneezing
  • Knocking on wood, particularly if one opened the umbrella inside the house
  • One should not walk under ladders unless he wants the day to turn bad
  • That it is always unlucky
  • The 7 years of bad luck brought on by breaking a mirror
  • There is a connection between itchy palms and financial gains or losses
  • When a horseshoe is found, luck is about to change for the better
  • When Friday falls on the 13th day of the month

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of superstitiousness is purely based on clinical case taking and often supported by various investigations like EEG, CT or MRI Scan of brain along with some common blood tests.

Treatment

There is a sure cure for superstition and that is education. If people are appropriately educated and heartened to develop a scientific attitude and rational thinking there is no uncertainty that superstition will perish naturally.

However, to correct the anatomical and physiological alterations leading to superstitiousness, certain medications are needed.

Homoeopathic treatment of superstitiousness

Homoeopathic medicine and psychological counselling are the best treatment options for superstitiousness.

Common remedies for superstitiousness

agar. anac. arg-n. ars. aster. bell. calc. carc. CON. granit-m. haliae-lc. hyos. kali-ar. Lach. lap-a. LYCPS-V. lyss. manc. med. op. phel. phos. pop. rat. rhus-t. stram. syph. thuj. tritic-vg. tub. verat. zinc.

Short repertory of superstitiousness

MIND - FEAR – superstitious rhus-t.

Mind - FEARS, phobias, general – superstitious Arg-n. con. med. phos. rhus-t. stram. zinc.

MIND – SUPERSTITIOUS agar. arg-n. bell. calc. carc. CON. granit-m. haliae-lc. hell. kali-ar. lap-a. manc. MED. op. phel. pop. rat. rhus-t. stram. syph. tub. zinc.

Mind - SUPERSTITIOUS, behavior Agar. anac. ARG-N. ars. bell. carc. Con. hyos. kali-ar. Lach. lap-a. LYCPS-V. lyss. manc. Med. op. phel. rat. Rhus-t. stram. syph. thuj. tub. verat. zinc.

Bibliography

Population Frequencies" width="37" height="48"> Chapter 21. Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder > Population Frequencies CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 2e... are the predominant rituals in OCD (50–60%). Other rituals, such as arranging, counting, repeating, and repetitive superstitious acts, occur less frequently (30–35%). Most patients with OCD (60%) have multiple obsessions or compulsions.

Single Gene Defects" width="38" height="48"> Chapter 3. Genetic Disorders & Sex Chromosome Abnormalities > Single Gene Defects CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Obstetrics & Gynecology, 11e... rarely, the patient will make a decision the physician regards as unwise or unrealistic. Such a decision may be based on superstition, religious or mystical beliefs, simple naiveté, or even personality disorder. The physician should make every attempt to clarify the issues for the patient. Rarely, other...

Essentials of Diagnosis" width="37" height="48"> Chapter 30. Personality Disorders > Essentials of Diagnosis CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment: Psychiatry, 2e... beliefs or magical thinking that influence behavior or is inconsistent with cultural norms (e.g., superstitious, belief in clairvoyance, telepathy, or “sixth sense”; in children and adolescents, bizarre fantasies or preoccupations) unusual perceptual experiences (including bodily illusions) odd...

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome" width="36" height="48"> Chapter 42. Alcohol and Alcoholism > Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Adams & Victor's Principles of Neurology, 10e... that maternal alcoholism could damage the fetus was generally rejected and relegated to the category of superstitions about alcoholism or the claims of temperance ideologues. In the late 1960s, the effects of alcohol abuse on the fetus were rediscovered, so to speak. Lemoine and associates in France...

Tacit or Implicit Knowledge" width="36" height="48"> Chapter 48. Monitoring during Mechanical Ventilation > Tacit or Implicit Knowledge Principles and Practice of Mechanical Ventilation, 3e... superstition, mystical thought, weird unfathomable emotion, and an excuse for prejudice. Yet, intuition, not explicit logical reasoning, lies at the heart of originality in science. People are not born with some free-floating gift of intuition. Instead, the unconscious decisions and automatic actions...

E xplanatory M odels " width="38" height="48"> Cross-cultural Communication > E xplanatory M odels Behavioral Medicine: A Guide for Clinical Practice, 4e..., especially recent immigrants, may be reticent about sharing their explanatory models of illness out of concern that their beliefs will be viewed as ignorant or superstitious. Alternatively, such patients may feel that they have come to hear the doctor’s expert opinion, and that their own perspective...

 Encyclopedia Homoeopathica

Classification & Clinical Findings" width="34" height="48"> Psychiatric Disorders > Classification & Clinical Findings Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2017... and need for control. Paranoid Defensive, oversensitive, secretive, suspicious, hyperalert, with limited emotional response. Schizoid Shy, introverted, withdrawn, avoids close relationships. Schizotypal Superstitious, socially isolated, suspicious, with limited interpersonal ability...

 Radar 10

 

 

 

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